How to Write an APA Style Reference When Information Is Missing

While referencing you will come across certain material that has some of the normal referencing elements missing, ie no date of publication, no author etc. When this happens you may need to change your reference slightly. Below are some examples of what you may need to do.

 

APA style

What is missing ?

If everything! The Source is missing

Solution  Cite as personal communication or find a substitute

 


Note.

Italicize a title when the document stands alone (books, reports, etc.) but not when it is part  of a greater whole (chapters, articles, etc.). The retrieval statement should reflect either a URL (for online documents without DOIs), a publisher location and name (for print sources), or a DOI (for any document that has one). Include a retrieval date with a URL only when a source is likely to change (e.g., wikis). Create an in-text citation by using the pieces from Positions A and B. For titles in Position A, use italics for works that stand alone (Title of Document, date) and quotation marks for works that are part of a greater whole (“Title of Document,” date). Retain square brackets for descriptions of documents in Position A ([Description of document], date).

Download the PDF version from here 

WHEN INFORMATION IS MISSING


References:

http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/

http://libguides.unitec.ac.nz/

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2 Comments
  1. Sani Lawal (Daura) Natambu. says

    Very Educative indeed.Pls, continue to impart more to us. Thanks!

  2. RABIU BENA says

    IT IS TIMELY. THERE IS NEW VERSION OF APA STYLE OF REFERENCING THAT REQUIRES NO BORDERS ON TABLES IN A TEXT AND SO ON. I HOPE OUR PAPER VERIFICATION COMMITTEE WILL COME TO TERMS WITH THIS DEVELOPMENT. NO PAPER SHOULD BE REJECTED ON GROUND OF MIXED REFERENCING…WE NEED CHANGE AND FAIRNESS!

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