How to Write Your Literature Review


Review of literature is the life cycle of every PhD thesis. Literature review connotes a systematic account of documented literature by qualified and accredited scholars and researchers.

When writing review of the literature you must show to your examiners and readers that what knowledge has been documented about your problem statement and what knowledge has not been documented yet so that you are about to document it. Your piece of literature must speak loud and clear about your research objectives, questions and your problem statement.

As thus, your literature review should define and strengthen your research. It should not be a long list of bibliographic references or a summary of re articulated materials to persuade your readers.

When writing your literature review in PhD, you must ask yourself:

  1. Does the literature review discuss about authenticity of my problem statement?
  2. Does the literature review significantly support the severity of my problem statement?
  3. Does the researcher agree or disagree with existing knowledge, and why?
  4. Is his/her final judgment or conclusion is sound, logical and persuasive?
  5. Does the researcher find literature that prove or disprove his problem statement?

How to Write Your Methodology:

Many people are confused between METHODOLOGY AND METHOD in research..Methodology refers to the theoretical analysis of your research (Concept) while method refers to a systematic and orderly arrangement and measuring of your research. Simple……..

The Method of a research designates that how you going to demeanor your research. It also leads you on how to advance with your research. Method is just like a tool utilized by a researcher to measure the activities of the study.

Different methodologies are used with different studies. Thus, methodology indicates rational and idealistic postulation of your study while method refers to the how to do it.

For example: Research on human feelings:

Methodology: Triangulation (Qualitative, Quantitative and Descriptive) mixed method.

Method: Research design, population, sample, instrument, validity, reliability and result and so on.

Some useful points when formulating your research methodology:

  1. Choose your methodology based on the type of research you are conducting.
  2. Institute a clear and concise affiliation between your study and your methodology.
  3. Ask yourself whether this methodology answers your research questions, hypothesis and Problem?
  4. Provide meaningful reason for choosing your methodology such as literature review, who has used this methodology and solved their problems…You see, in research we have to follow other researchers and give credit to them. In writing your PhD thesis you cannot use I, Me, We and so on……I found out that……Noooooo….Unless you have conquered the universe..Baru Boleh….So we cite others, such as according to …………indicates that……This is polite way of doing your thesis..

Remember: You are just one step away from being a distinguished scholar..(Mr. Dr.) So Must be Humble….Trust me, you will get your fame and recognition.. and that Dr.. is yours forever and ever….

  1. Divide your method into research design, population, sample, instrument, validity, reliability, results and implementation phases.
  2. Most importantly, are you comfortable with it? If you are comfortable with your title, trust me, you have already done 50 percent of your thesis….. Good Luck..


  1. a latif zakaria adam says

    a research method is a tool to manage a research problem(s) in specific, while research methodology: is a procession possible to include research methods on a way to specific. how far this defining is correct ?

  2. a latif zakaria adam says

    if my research methodology covers the the problem statement in research study: what affiliation is expected?
    now it is possibly to differentiate between methods and methodologies in resolving a research problem(s).
    a research problem gap varies from field of knowledge to another; in science mostly and likely to be on experimental research methods, where in planning is mostly and likely to research case study.


  3. Umesh Lamsal says


  4. Umesh Lamsal says


  5. Prof. Mandira Shahi says

    Very good

  6. Abdulkarim H A says

    Educative piece

  7. Ahmed Abubakar says

    Today I learned alot

  8. Ahmed Abubakar says

    Today I learned alot

  9. Adamu Garba Zango says

    This is no doubt an educative piece for PhD research students.

Comments are closed.