Rules of Thumb for Writing Research Articles


Tip 1: Try to pick a catchy title!



Tip 2: abstract should be short but give the overall idea: what was done, what was found and what are the main conclusions

The article provides ’rules of thumb’ for writing research articles (RA) and getting them published. These were discussed during the “Scientific writing course” organized for ITC PhD students by Cressie Communication Services. Important aspects of macro and sub-structure of a paper were selected through group discussions. The substructure and functions of different sections of RAs are described. Results of previous investigations and interviews among journal editors were used to summarize what makes a good RA. It was concluded that clear, logical, coherent, focused, good argument and well-structured writing gets the paper published and read. Some important rules of the thumb selected were: “Adjust your writing to the audience and purpose”, “Avoid redundancy and unnecessary explanations” and “Write like you speak and then revise”.

Keywords: Research article, rules of thumb, structure, publishing. 

Tip 3: when selecting KWs, imagine you are searching for your article in some database


MOVE 1: Introduce the topic and emphasize why is it important!

A scientific or research article or paper is a technical (or essayistic?) document that describes a significant experimental, theoretical or observational extension of current knowledge, or advances in the practical application of known principles (O’Conner and Woodford, 1976). It is important to emphasize that a research article (further referred as RA) should report on research findings that are not only sound (valid) and previously unpublished (original), but also add some new understanding, observation, proofs, i.e. potentially important information (Gordon, 1983). Unlike a novel, newspaper article or an essay, a RA has a required structure and style, which is by international consensus known as “Introduction Methods Results and Discussion” or IMRaD. However, a RA is not only a technically rigid document, but also a subjective intellectual product that unavoidably reflects personal opinions and beliefs. Therefore, it requires good skills in both structuring and phrasing the discoveries and thoughts. These skills are acquired through experience, but can also be taught.

MOVE 2: Relate to current knowledge: What’s been done” and “What need’s to be done?

Many books have been written on general guidelines and rules to help scientists write RAs (Day, 1994; Trelease, 1958). These days, many scientific societies and groups write quite detailed publications and style manuals to help both authors and publishers to get along; see for example the CBE’s style manual (1994) or the ACA-CSA-SSSA’s manual (1998). What used to be short guides for writing a RA has been extended to the level of meso and micro-elements of the paper. Various authors have investigated the principles of creating a good title (Ackles, 1996), writing a good abstract or introduction (McPhee, 2001; Swales, 1981). Some go to the level of the micro-structure of RA (sentences) and provide a framework for a logical structure between the words (Gopen and Swan, 1990; Kirman, 1992). gapHowever, writing a RA is still a “monkey-puzzle tree”, especially if you are a non-native English speaker (further referred to as L2). What makes a good paper and which rules of thumb are the most important for these researchers?

MOVE 3: Introduce your work

Following this question, we tried to formulate some rule of thumbs for easier writing (or better to say publishing) of RAs. objectivesThese rules gathered from discussions during the “Scientific writing for non-native English speakers” course, but also come from our personal experiences with scientific writing. The main idea was to summarize main conclusions from these discussions and bring them all together in a form of a paper.


Tip 4: Describe Experimental set-up

The Scientific writing course, organized annually for ITC PhD students, was held in period from March 8th until April 26th 2002. There were nine students, who followed five full-day classes. This gave enough time to do numerous home-works and assignments. The classes were organised in a way that participants worked in groups or individually and discussed the most important issues, first among themselves and then as a whole group. obhectives-of-the-studyThe following topics were discussed in more detail (in chronological order): standard structure or elements of an RA, macro, meso and micro levels of a RA, general problems with readability and communication, functions and content of Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion section, writing successful abstracts and principles of submitting and publishing a RA. The participants were from eight countries (L2) and four continents, which was a ground for discussion of cultural- academic differences (Prince et al., 1999). author-voiceThe working material and facilities were organized by Ian Cressie (Cressie, 2002), while most of the classes were lead by Michael Gould, documentation consultant and advisory editor. Participants generated some graphs and flow diagrams manually (Fig. 1), which we then modified and transferred to a manuscript form.

Tip 5: Explain used techniques


Fig. 1. Photo from the Scientific writing class at ITC. Discussion about the “Discussion” section.
The basic concept of the course is that the students should learn from the real examples and on their own mistakes. In most of the cases, participants were analysing and correcting each-others work. In other cases, participants were making comments on examples prepared by Ian Cressie. Typical exercise was, for example: a short RA is given to students who have to write a missing abstract respecting the rules and functions of an abstract.

Most of the rules mentioned in this article were agreed by the majority of participants. We have also used results of previous investigations and inquiries of journal editors to support general conclusions. Nevertheless, some of the statements and principles reflect personal views and opinions and should not be confused with the cited literature. The listed rules and tips given here apply primarily to application-based sciences and RAs intended for publication in such journals.

Tip 6: RA is like a cook-book! Be specific and provide all necessary detail


RA structure and style

Tip 7: Give summary results

A RA was first divided in number of article sections (futher reffered to as RAS) and elements (RAE). Participants agreed that the main article sections that are inevitable in any modern journal are, in this order: Title, Authors, Abstract, Introduction (I), Methodology (M), Results (R), Conclusions and Discussion (D) and References. These are the core body of RA. Additional listed RAS’s were: Author-paper documentation, Keywords, Acknowledgements, Abbreviations and Appendices. The RAEs listed were: tables, figures (graphs, maps, diagrams, sketches etc.), equations, citations and footnotes and comments. The RAEs can come in different places in the RA, however tables and figures are more usual in Results section and equations and citations in Methodology and Introduction. All these RAS’s and RAEs have their function and required style and should form a coherent unity. The functions of main RAS’s and discussed rules of thumb are given in Table 2.

Tip 8: Compare results

Participants agreed that some RA, even with good data and interesting results, will be rejected if the style and format of the paper are not tailored for the audience. This agrees with the results of investigations among 116 editors (Gosden, 1992; Fig. 1), who identified following most frequent causes to reject an L2 author: unclear text, incoherent development of the topic in paragraphs and incorrect use of grammar. In addition, the participants analysed an exemplary flawed paper by unknown author and decided to reject it after some discussion. The list of reasons for rejection can be seen in Table 1.

Tip 9: put more focus on what should be emphasized

Table 1. Most important reasons for rejection of a RA.

Reason for rejection
Topic irrelevant topic or topic of local interest only
Newness papers offers nothing new
Focus topic, objectives and conclusions are not connected
Methodological unclear and misleading argumentation;
steps weak methodology or results
Style unclear, unfocused and incoherent text
Data Quality flawed design; insignificant sample number; preliminary findings only

Table 2. Research Article Sections (RAS), main functions, preferred style and related rules of thumb.

Main functions
Preferred style
Rules of thumb
Title - indicates content and main discoveries; - attracts the reader's attention; - short and simple (7-10 words); - purposive (aims at specific audience); - avoid complex grammar; - make it catchy! - avoid redundancy ("An investigation of... ", "The analysis of... ", "Effect of... ", "Influence of...", "New method...);
Abstract - reflects the main 'story' of the RA; - calls attention but avoids extra explanations; - past (perfect) tense and passive voice(!) - short and concise sentences; - no citations, tables, equations, graphs etc. - avoid introducing the topic; - explain: what was done, what was found and what are the main conclusions; - bring summary 'numbers';
Introduction - introduces the topic and defines the terminology; - relates to the existing research; - indicated the focus of the paper and research objectives; - simple tense for reffering to established knowledge or past tense for literature review; - use the state-of-the-art references; - follow the logical moves; - define your terminology to avoid confusion;
Methodology - provides enough detail for competent researchers to repeat the experiment; - who, what, when, where, how and why? - past tense but active voice(!); - correct and internationally recognised style and format (units, variables, materials etc.); - mention everything you did that can make importance to the results; - don't cover your traces ("some data was ignored"), establish an authors voice ("we decided to ignored this data"); - if a technique is familiar, only use its name (don't re-explain); - use simple(st) example to explain complex methodology;
Results - gives summary results in graphics and numbers; - compares different 'treatments'; - gives quantified proofs (statistical tests); - past tense; - use tables and graphs and other illustrations; - present summary data related to the RA objectives and not all research results; - give more emphasise on what should be emphasised - call attention to the most significant findings; - make clear separation between yours and others work;
Conclusions and Discussion - answers research questions/objectives; - explains discrepancies and unexpected findings; - states importance of discoveries and future implications; - simple or present tense (past tense if it is related to results); - allows scientific speculations (if necessary); - do not recapitulate results but make statements; - make strong statements (avoid "It may be concluded... " style); - do not hide unexpected results - they can be the most important;
References - gives list of related literature and information sources; - depends on journal but authors/editors, year and title must be included; - always cite the most accessible references; - cite primary source rather than review papers;

RA sub-structure

Participants also discovered that all RAS’s can be separated in subsections or signposts, which can be arbitrary, but improve the structure of a RA. The recognized subsections were: research topic and definitions, research objectives (questions), methodological techniques, experimental set-up, object of the study (e.g. study area), main discoveries (analysed data), answers on research questions, explanation of the conclusions and further research and implications. The main RAS’s are listed in a flow chart, showing main relations between different sections (Fig. 2). Fig. 3 shows the substructure of Introduction and Discussion RAS as the most important RAS’s.


Fig. 2. Flow diagram: research article sections (shaded) and subsections, and their main relations.

fig-3-flow-diagram-logical-framework-for-ra-sub-sections-of-introduction-and-discussion-agreed-by-most-of-the-participantsFig. 3. Flow diagram: logical framework for RA sub-sections of Introduction and Discussion agreed by most of the participants.


Tip 10: Answer research questions

What is the purpose of a RA and what makes it a good one, and who decides that it is a good RA? Are there rules for easier writing? If the main function of a RA is to transfer a new knowledge on a research topic, then a good paper is the one that is clear, coherent, focused, well argued and uses language that does not have ambiguous or equivoque meaning. However, it is not only the message that is important. The RA must have a well-defined structure and function in serve like a cook-book, so the others can reproduce and repeat explained experiments.

Tip 11: Give summary conclusions

There are some rules that can make the writing and publishing of RAs ‘easier’. Here, we summarised some ‘golden’ rules that should always be in the mind of an inexperienced researcher (Table 3). We put all these together to make a final list of some 40 logical steps, which can be find in the Appendix. 

Table 3. Selected golden rules for easier publishing.

TAKE A READER'S VIEW Write for your audience not for yourself.
TELL A STORY BE Direct your RA but keep a clear focus in the paper and present only results that relate to it.
BE YOURSELF Write like you speak and then revise and polish.
MAKE IT SIMPLE Use simple(st) examples to explain complex methodology.
MAKE IT CONCRETE Use concrete words and strong verbs, avoid noun clusters (more than three words), abstract and ambiguous words.
MAKE IT SHORT Avoid redundancy, repetition and over-explanation of familiar techniques and terminology.
TAKE RESPONSIBILITY Make a clear distinction between your work and that of others.
MAKE STRONG STATEMENTS "We concluded... " instead of "It may be concluded... "
BE SELF-CRITICAL Consider uncertainty of conclusions and their implications and acknowledge the work of others.

Writing a Research Article  in 40 Steps!

Tip 12: Unexpected findings

Although, it was assumed that the ‘thicker’ articles with wider range of vocabulary is preferable in the editors hands, the editors (and probably the readers) prefer simple, clear and coherent writing, rather than a fancy or complex, pseudo-scientific style. Also Funkhouser and Maccoby (1971) showed that the information gain is especially enhanced by the “use of examples”, i.e. it helps a lot to use some non-science material, such as everyday life parallels, historical points, etc. On the other hand, some sections, such as Introduction and Discussion, have to intrigue readers and attract interest and should therefore not be over-simplified. For example, a mysterious title can catch readers’ attention and will be easily remembered (e.g.: T.Y. Li and J. Yorke named their famous paper on chaos: “The period three means chaos”). Some sections require more skill and are more important. It is approximated that from all published journal RAs in the world, only less than 5% are read in detail. However, more than 50% of abstracts are read and so the quality of an abstracts is much more important (Gordon, 1983). Therefore, the abstract should present the ‘story’ of the RA in miniature and should be readable standalone.

Tip 13: Establish  newness

The sub-structure of an Introduction was first described by Swales (1981) with so called “four moves”. These latter on become three, the so-called CaRS model (Create-A- Research-Space) that are: establish a research “territory”, establish a research “niche” and occupy the niche (Swales and Feak, 1994). In this case, participants concluded that especially the meso-structure of the Introduction and Discussion RAS should follow some logical flow of ‘moves’ (Fig. 2 & 3). The more structured and more exact is the paper, the easier it will get published. Each of RA elements has to fulfil its function in order to achieve this goal.

Tip 14: Explain discrepancies

However, this is not the whole story. A RA has to aim at specific audience/Journal, has to be novel and of high interest. Finally, one thing should be uppermost in researchers’ minds: a good article is not only an article that has been published in a top journal – it is the reaction it causes that makes the difference. Therefore, a good article is the one that is read and cited (Publish or Perish!). In some cases, even a good paper will get rejected by the editors, i.e. journal. Unfortunately, sometimes the reasons can be subjective (maybe 1/3rd of all cases). Editors are often biased, they prefer one or other approach, academic level, gender… nation. These problems and issues such as fraud, plagiarism and ethics (Rossiter, 2001) were not discussed in this article but they certainly need attention.


The searching, input and formatting of references, has been lately largely improved by the help of so called “information management tools” (Endnote, ProCite etc.). In addition, the role of companies involved in ‘sorting’ and ‘filtering’, such as Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), will increase. In future, we can expect more structured guidelines for writing a RA (templates?). The RA will also probably support multimedia (animations, sound recordings), which will improve communication between the readers/users and authors. These innovations will inevitably require require some new rules of thumb.

Tip 16: Further research and implications

Put it all together: 

Writing a Research Article in 40 Steps!

Step #
Step 1 Make a working title
Step 2 Introduce the topic and define terminology
Step 3 Emphasize why is the topic important
Step 4 Relate to current knowledge : what's been done
Step 5 Indicate the gap : what need's to be done?
Step 6 Pose research questions
Step 7 Give purpose and objectives
Step 8 List methodological steps
Step 9 Explain theory behind the methodology used
Step 10 Describe experimental set-up
Step 11 Describe object of the study (technical details)
Step 12 Give summary results
Step 13 Compare different results
Step 14 Focus on main discoveries
Step 15 Answer research questions (conclusions)
Step 16 Support and defend answers
Step 17 Explain conflicting results, unexpected findings and discrepancies with other research
Step 18 State limitations of the study
Step 19 State importance of findings
Step 20 Establish newness
Step 21 Announce further research
Step 22 ABSTRACT: what was done, what was found and what are the main conclusions
Step 23 Is the title clear and does it reflect the content and main findings?
Step 24 Are key terms clear and familiar?
Step 25 Are the objectives clear and relevant to the audience?
Step 26 Are all variables, techniques and materials listed, explained and linked to existing knowledge - are the results reproducible?
Step 27 Are all results and comparisons relevant to the posed questions/objectives?
Step 28 Do some statements and findings repeat in the text, tables of figures?
Step 29 Do the main conclusions reflect the posed questions?
Step 30 Will the main findings be unacceptable by the scientific community?
Step 31 Is the text coherent, clear and focused on a specific problem/topic?
Step 32 Is the abstract readable standalone (does it reflects the main story)?
Step 33 Are proper tenses and voices used (active and passive)?
Step 34 Are all equations mathematically correct and explained in the text? Are all equations mathematically correct and explained in the text?
Step 35 Are all abbreviations explained?
Step 36 Reconsider (avoid) using of words "very", "better", "may", "appears", "more", "convinced", "impression" in the text.
Step 37 Are all abbreviations, measurement units, variables and techniques internationally recognised (IS)?
Step 38 Are all figures/tables relevant and of good quality?
Step 39 Are all figures, tables and equations listed and mentioned in the text?
Step 40 Are all references relevant, up to date and accessible?


We would like to thank Ian Cressie for their course and materials, which are of high importance for L2 PhD students. We also thank PhD student Jose L.C. Santos and Dr. David G. Rossiter for reading the text and giving us suggestions.

In Text References

  • Ackles, N., 1996. Naming a paper, ESL Center, University of Washington, Washington. ASA-CSA-SSSA, 1998. Publications Handbook and Style Manual., 145 pp.
  • Council of Biology Editors (CBE) (Editor), 1994. Scientific style and format. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 825 pp.
  • Cressie, I., 2002. Writing & Editing Course, Lecture notes for ITC students. Enschede, pp. 120.
  • Day, R.A. (Editor), 1994. How to write and publish a scientific paper. Oryx Pr., Phoenix, 223 pp. Funkhouser, G. R. and Maccoby, N., 1971. Communicating Specialized Science Information to a Lay Audience. The Journal of Communication, 21: 58.
  • Gopen, G.D. and Swan, J.A., 1990. The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist, 78: 550-558. Gordon, M., 1983. Running a refeering system. Primary Communications Research Centre, Leicester. Gosden, H., 1992. Research Writing and NNSs: From the Editors. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1(2): 123-139
  • Kirman, J., 1992. Good style: writing for science and technology. E. & F.N. Spon, London, 221 pp. McPhee, L., 2001. Teaching the Research Article Introduction, First EAT AW Conference: Teaching Academic Writing Across Europe, Groningen.
  • O’Conner, M. and Woodford, F.P., 1976. Writing scientific papers in English. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 108 pp.
  • Prince, A., Blicblau, A.S. and Soesatyo, B., 1999. Implicit actions and explicit outcomes: cultural- academic interactions in writing journal research articles, AARE-NZARE. Swinburne University of Technology, pp. 8.
  • Rossiter, D.G., 2001. Preparation for MSc Thesis Research. ITC, Enschede,,28.
  • Swales, J., 1981. Aspects of Article Introductions. ESP Research Report No.1, University of Aston, Aston, UK.
  • Swales, J.M. and Feak, C., 1994. Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Ann Arbor, the University of Michigan Press.
  • Trelease, S.F., 1958. How to write scientific and technical papers. Williams and Wilkens, Baltimore, 185 Pp


Hengl, T. and Gould, M., 2002. Rules of thumb for writing research articles. 

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  1. alatif zakaria says

    APPENDIX 2: Article Title: Some Paradigms on Urban Pattern.

    BY: A.Latif Zakaria Adam; MSc. Arch. (U.of.K.). Africa Street. Gazira Block. Plot 69. Khartoum 1. (Anza Const.). ماجستير- , م.معمارى: عبداللطيفزكرياادم

    Keywords: pattern-paradigms. Environment. Culture. Socioeconomic. Functional organization-
    0.0. Abstract
    Urban pattern is considered a crucial baseline of both urban planning and urban design criteria. The plot, the block, the neighborhood, the town, and the city patterns, are decisive in urban expression through the following design and planning paradigms:
    Functional organization.
    The previous four paradigms are very comprehensive and multidisciplinary to each other in eventual urban space and building forms, in relation to open space hierarchy; traffic and pedestrian circulation paths. No doubt pattern in design and planning is considered in links, associated with plan configurations of an urban entity at a level. A vertical profile of any urban unit or an urban complex, i.e. building facades as vertical planes, more or less is logical respond of their configurations pattern. Lines; vertically and horizontally, nodes, intersections and parallelism, expressing an urban building in meanings derived from the functional and environmental criteria. This lay threshold of urban forms, are associated with urban age, urban culture and urban sociology. All are conceptualized as an urban pattern output.
    No doubt the matter is realistic in real estate’s input challenges of building materials and constructional techniques, but the environ-cultural, socioeconomic, functional organization are fundamentally pattern like.
    This paper is going to highlight in broad and specific, the previous four paradigms on urban design baseline with some emphasis on Khartoum town urban age.
    Analysis is expected on conceptualization and short previewing samples of the selected case of entitled nominated paper in focus criteria.

    .1. Introduction: FIG. 0
    Paradigms themselves are influences affect pattern selection in urban design and planning criteria. As stated in the-article abstract, there are 4 paradigms on environmental, cultural, socioeconomic, and functional organization. These paradigms are taken as guidelines of induction, perception, representation, and expression of an urban designer or planner in selecting his design or planning pattern respectively In logic of urbanization philosophy through -environmental, cultural, socioeconomically, or functional organization thinking deemed to single, double, triple, or so forth of all these paradigms. See FIG.0: The Cycle of the Urban Pattern Paradigms.
    The Cycle of the Urban Pattern Paradigms is a tour from virtual world of design memory creativity to physical memory of the implementer ONTO world of realism in architecture and planning for urban design characterize. In precision when a pattern coincides a predefined paradigm the mutual design or planning theme on focus is resolved successfully in fulfilling a design criterion or criteria. On this paper the terms of, “urban pattern “means, the urban configurations in elaboration expressing some or all of the previous 4 paradigms as rational criteria in statement.
    In urban age history, these selected 4 paradigms were included in the design and planning themes of the early configurations of Agora and Forum of the Greek and the Roman civilizations respectively, RIGHT on: through the medieval cities age, Gothic cities age, Renaissance cities age, the Romanesque cities age, the Neo-classicism cities age, the Baroque cities age, early Modernism cities age UP-TO post Modernism entire cities age of Mega cities. All in Classical and Gothic rational base abstracted by the revolution of modernism. Since on after the later, “Modernism “.
    Urban design was established by Le Corbusier, and the Bauhaus leaders; Chicago school of urban sociology and the School of Urban design foundation a t Harvard University: 1956 under leadership of Jane Jacob, Signer, Weber and others. All are paradigmatic to previous pattern of thinking.
    Spatial planning in concept at any scale is well associated to these 4 paradigms in defining urban space in time-location of a certain cultural identity in environmental boundary limits. No doubt socioeconomic consistency gets the matter true. See FIG.3
    Functional organization paradigm identifies the urban planning comprehensive targets in predefined pattern selection criterion or criteria. This emphasizes recent methods pattern articulation themes; broadly on:
    Grid iron pattern hierarchy. FIG.4: el Deem & its Vicinity…
    • Concentric pattern hierarchy. FIG. 5:.el Khartoum 1& 2
    Both hierarchies’ are perceptual on fig. 2: Pattern of Perception.
    Climate the central theme of physical environmental analysis of urban design and planning motivates cultural expression by an urban designer or planner besides modern ways in a way that culture and technology, previously IN handicrafts express environmental challenges. Colonial architecture in Sudan had a great contribution in this respect in specific constructional methods adopted.
    Open spaces and road system hierarchy in definitions of building forms and facades techniques at urban levels are nouns and verbs of 4 paradigmatic pattern Demonstrations deemed to urban design trends.

    2. Definitions:
    FIG2: The Pattern of Perception. The argument on perceptual fields that surround buildings and also active in interior space. Among architects the importance of these perceptual fields has been acknowledged explicitly by Paolo Portuguese. Since the notion of perceptual and social fields has been adopted from physics. Portuguese begins his discussion with a formulation of Albert Einstein’s: “we speak of matter when the concentration of energy is -high and of fields when the Concentration is Weaker. But in that case the difference between matter and field appears to be quantitative rather than qualitative. ‘buildings as islands in space, Portuguese is focusing upon those shapes that indicate the dynamics of fields of most directly, namely on pattern of concentric circles., as they appear on the surface of a pond when a stone is dropped in to the water as represented on Portuguese’s drawing. This notion in analogy is possibly to be an abstract pattern for a settlement configuration, e.g. a concentric town plan pattern. See overleaf FIG.2: the pattern of perception. Bottom left collage on Fig. 1 below.

    (Fig.1: collage of Paradigmatic Pattern Concept. )
    In language guide, a paradigm means a pattern system or clauses in arrangement. A pattern itself means logical arrangement of entities, intitutively or in geometrical shapes logic. In specific, the historical terminology for a “Pattern” means a decorative piece of fine or applied art in a repetition of a geometrical shape (s), in design logic at least emphasized by visual rhythm for an output on targets of an objective in endless design criteria. Recently polyhedral geometry forms basic design elements in students’ works worldwide in schools of architecture. A lot of polyhedral shapes are found naturally in different bonds of all matter states and specifically in bio-chemical nature. See collage on FIG. 1 below. This collage previews basic design work on polyhedral approach done by a group of architectural careers in philosophy of image grammar rather than words grammar in world of architecture, planning, and urban design in specific. The collage reveals shaping the space through elementary basic design techniques. 5 polyhedral patterns on this collage: please take a visual rotation counter clockwise start from, hand finger pattern mid left collage; mid right picture view as well and read the following patterns.
    •Human hand-fingers pattern of symmetry in basic design.
    •A chemical bond pattern of mineral soda late polyhedral.
    •Solid volume pattern out of periodic surfaces dodecagon polyhedral.
    •Tangled 10- triangle pattern repetition for a basic design polyhedral.
    •Computer draft for sphere polyhedral.
    The collage on FIG.:2reveals a symbolic abstract that the pattern unit in any basic design approach is an endless abstract for design work in architecture and urban design and far possible in urban planning tool for perception and
    FIG 2
    -conceptualization of shaping the -space for human design purposes; like the fundamental triple of architecture, urban design, and urban planning.

    (Fig.2: Collage of polyhedral Pattern Selection )

    3. Articulation.
    Urban pattern means logical arrangement of urban entities on urban design and planning rules subject to all measurement criteria. Thus from decorative art in basic definition of pattern, the term is elaborated to include sophisticated logical Arrangement in urban buildings design of: neighborhoods, communities, towns and cities in different scales from metropolitan hinter; FIG.3 over leaf up- to recent mega cities. These outlines mean idiomatic pattern in standard terminology of regular pattern concept, subject to multi-disciplinary articulations rather than intuitive clustering of rural- urban influx at poor metropolitan hinter, however this true in urban history that most of entire world urbanism based on metropolitan intuition, which IS mainly Metros& Metropolis towards urbanization. Nevertheless, on this paper profile, according to standard ground articulation let us take the following patterns of articulation:
    • The metros pattern hierarchy.
    • The metropolis pattern hierarchy.
    • The metropolitan pattern hierarchy.
    Each pattern of the previous 3 paradigms includes Subsidiary patterns like in followings:
     Intuitive pattern.
     Analytical pattern.
     Loop cluster pattern.
     Geometrical pattern.
     Functional pattern.
     Transactional pattern.
     Endless list for these subsidiaries to include the major articulation pattern of the main previous paradigms. For final form pattern output in architecture, urban design, and urban planning for satisfaction of human needs functionally and expressing human values meaningfully on purposes of objectives.
    In urban Below on FIG. 3: The Metros Pattern of Neale Town; represents a rural -urban concept, paradigmatically on local Sudanese cultural & socioeconomic motivation towards rural- urban housing development in Metropolis concept outlines the conceptual configuration of urban input & output done in a research for sustainable urban growth concept around Neale at,” Dar Fur Region-Sudan. “Khartoum Town at its early stage of foundation was alike in concept. See FIG. 3: The Metros of Neale Town below.
    Planning and design literature, and in language guide; metros; metropolis; and metropolitan, previously mentioned are described in the following sense:
    Metros,” subway system in a city, e.g. Paris”. Metropolis, “the chief city of a country, or a capital city. “. Metropolitan, “belonging to forming part of a mother country as a distinguished selection, like metropolitan New York. Which never has an urban sustainability in rural-urban cut exceeds 2 week-times “.
    This plan configuration in metros pattern reveals: Rural sustainability in mixed farming with basic rural services, “water supply, for rural villages cluster in radial road system hierarchy.

    (FIG. 3: The Metros Metropolis of Neale .)

    Extreme parameter of the pattern view. • Sub-regional center for trade marketing. See Subsequent circular ring. •Light industrial processing factories. See left side picture view. • Metropolis hinter center. See center circle of the configuration pattern. • Urban output configuration indicator of metropolis in urban forum @ Neale regional center. See the pentagonal shape left bottom of the pattern picture view, which indicates new urban.
    This pattern in its concept predicts
    Garden City approach of Ebenezer Howard. The neo- developed rational urban
    Pattern hierarchy at Neale is a low scale of Garden City concept of town sustainability.

    (FIG. 4 : The Metropolis of Khartoum Town –el Deem & its Vicinity-..)

    On FIG.4: The Metropolis Pattern of Khartoum Town- at el Deem Vicinity-. It reveals the urban Sustainability of Khartoum town on Focus of the Main residential vicinity southwards the core City of minor Khartoum established by Anglo-Egyptian regime by Kitchener Bashan 18 89.
    EL Deem east–center- represents the core residential area for the local, who worked at FIG.4
    -the railway station and light industry north-west. Most of them are migrants and immigrants of rural u-an influx towards Khartoum town for both trade& cultural links after Gazira Board Scheme establishment by the British. It was temporary dwellings of 1998mud and straw that residential Khartoum. Later developed on replanted community in Awareness of open space and road system Hierarchy
    By Ali Nadir on McLain’s plan approach as an extension for Kitchener plan foundation. The
    Dwelling authorized on 100sq. m. plot for two rooms verandah, kitchen and a pit latrine, all are built of mud and roofed with native materials. Time by time the residents develop their dwellings. First; red bricks fair facing, locally called, (Geisha). Then galvanized iron sheeting on load bearing one and half brick walls with

    Adobe bricks inside and red bricks fair face in
    (FIG.5: The Metropolis Pattern of Khartoum Town- at Khartoum 1-2. & el Ararat Vicinity-)
    Bond outside. Load bearing of one half red brick walls roofed with jack arching. Recently frame structural concrete multi story house units and even block. Of flats are replacing the previous in a very rapid urban change. All previous stages had and have been and are being done on the same 100 sq. M. plot area within the same provision of open space and road system hierarchy. No doubt this reveals the adequacy of planning work then to cope.

    The plan is mainly focused onto el Deem residential area for its challenging rationally urban development on original planning pattern. Around this core inner city of Khartoum 2nd class residential area like Khartoum 3., “grid iron “ 1st class residential area like Khartoum 2, “ lovely suburban like with composite pattern of concentric curvilinear north east community and grid iron, south-west vicinities of this community. Both in optimum orientation
    -direction suits environmental themes of day lighting factor and natural ventilation as well. “ . El Ararat was planned in early Sixth decade of 20th century for 1st class residential area in simple grid iron pattern. Look at on FIG.4&FIG.5: The Metropolis of Khartoum Town.
    No doubt the greater Khartoum in its entire sprawl including Khartoum; Omdurman; and Khartoum north
    are a metropolitan of decisive urban sustainability challenges beside the strong rural-urban FIG.6 socioeconomic link. Urban quality, urban ratio, urban input, urban output, plan sprawl, urban facilities, and urban services. All in urban planning and design criteria subject to feedback FIG 6: The Metropolitan Pattern of Greater Khartoum.
    Analysis for better urban age of Khartoum capital city. Both natural and man- made pattern are at a genuine selected feature almost unique; but in lack of certain policies in sprawl layout, which is rather expensive in a waste of urban inputs associated with rather poor urban outputs. Some of all is a waste of not well studied Real Estate. All get the matter in serious critique comparativeness and comparison of sustainable urban development worldwide. See FIG.6,

    (FIG.6: Greater Khartoum Town )

    4. Environmental Challenges:
    Natural environment in architecture and planning, and eventually its effects on physical environment of an urban scope, is mainly climatologically awareness in building, orientation, building form selection, in consistency of building elements:, “roofs, facades, floors, doors and windows to emphasize environmental protection through constructional techniques, and building material selection. This scientific techniques approach in urban planning and design along urban ages have been associated with environmental perception in cultural motivations of urban designers and planners abilities in expressing their pre -conceives and motivations in paradigmatic patterns and building styles suit their cultural identities. See FIG.7, FIG.8&FIG.9, respectively overleaf.
    So environmental functionalism and transaction emerge each other in theory of satisfaction and comfort ability of human spatial needs, as well the expression of meanings and values artistically in massive world of architecture.
    4.1 Orientation
    Overall in priorities of urban planning and design, is the theme of configuration of building orientation. Optimizing this environmental theme, saves a lot in design feedback analysis that might elaborate severe expensive land and building costs. An elegant urban pattern in orientation, means adequacy in environmental variables and factors influences our urban
    FIG.7: Urban Open Space Hierarchy. Physical
    Environment. Eventually urban planning and design trends will cope in function and transaction in feasible cost grants meaningfully.

    4.2 Open Space Hierarchy.
    Open space hierarchy is the planning theme enables well tackling of urban design techniques; In relation to landscape, pathways, landmarks, nodes, edges, and planes. Environmental perception at urban scope depends mainly on open space quality. Loft space ratio to build up filling of an urban space determines the paradigmatic pattern of an urban community. National identity in urbanism; precise a city forum, sub groups town, parks, community, at block levels as well in consider of an international character subsides a tourism level the urban paradigmatic mutual pattern is highly featured. See FIG.7; below.
    4.3 Urban Circulation.
    Urban circulation is the central axis of a town or a city in achieving urban convenience for both mechanical and pedestrian movement through the town paths and nodes. Avoidance of intersections among either or both in nodes justifications in time- direction scale or road system constructional techniques in optimization; however renovation and preservation challenges might versus, beside cost constrains, especially in under developed towns and cities like Greater Khartoum. FIG.8: elaborates a diagrammatic analysis for an urban corner in a multi-level cross junction proposal on its relevant probabilities, encountered : (25 traffic states- 5 lanes @ solid angle direction. 5 multilevel over or down takes, or both down & up).FIG.8.a; FIG.8.b., shows an intution by the author for traffic soultion @ X- Junction; below.


    4.4 Urban landscape.
    Urbanism is associated with harshness of hard topology; however it could be intimate by soft -scope. Landscape design and its features of side road and side street plantation with selected trees and flowers. Gardens and parks within the open space hierarchy. A consideration pronounces the urban topological quality in convenience of urban occupants at
    -psychophysical satisfaction in beauty. See FIG. 9
    4.5 Building Form.
    Any town or a city is a functional organization of building complexes in rules of architecture and urban design based rationally on urban planning themes. The transaction of beauty in urban forms is challenging for all architects; and urban designers in a configuration of urban plan Description, ‘Node, edge, plane, and volumetric mass “. Theories worked out classically by Pythagoras, Plato, Dec art, Kasper Mug, and recently in urban age by Le Corbusier, “cubism ‘and Picasso. “The 4th dimension. “For instance in short cut, still baselines of elementary urban design theories. Form perception on an urban configuration complex underdeveloped on desktop or laptop is the matter of team work sharing of different specialists of urban design and planning forum for:
    -comprehensive mutual results of input and output of predefined objectives. Urban design, well like in architectural design in form perception, through ,”nodes, lines, planes to precise a solids and voids repetition in musical term of visual rhythm that you feel balance and dynamism, mobility, harmony and contrast tuning, rational modular, ‘ le Corbusier; “ or as it was on design state, it is in real estate. Building styles of Post Modernism influenced by environmental challenges and machine constructional techniques of building elements, never get out of Casper Mug’s theory of plane folds and similarities as shown on FIG.0: center.
    4.6 Construction Methods.
    The construction in architecture and urban design is really the decisive output of the design challenges in materialistic feasible transaction of architectural beauty fantasy that the matter is recorded in manuscript of an urban age. A building style is mainly or by itself is a constructional method achievement in the world of architecture and eventually onto urban design trends. Urban constructional techniques are in direct links to real estate power in all liabilities of building technology and constructional management in constructional industry. Programming in time scale and allocation of building industry resources, machine and man power for successfulness of any urban constructional project. Cost management and budgetary control in time scale is fatal, otherwise the matter is Risky. Machine line and handcrafted-lines, in emergence enables urban design diversity. Rather than the machine pro-type monotony argued by the conservative urban designers.
    4.7 Building Materials Selection.
    The process input for constructional output nominates building materials processing and manufacture. This processing is mainly environmental research for environmental protection in economic feasibility. Materials and construction in building .Towns are dual emergence subject to continuous building research experiments to suits urban design challenges and needs. Building materials processing and manufacture almost a matter of hydration and dehydration of a substance of soils, plants, steel, or petrochemical; like bricks making, wood and timber seasoning, steel casting, petrochemical polymers, fiber and resins for a purpose of constructional elements production in site or factory processed, respectively. Flexibility and swiftness are needed in urban construction industry.
    The challenges of reselection or order of a selection according to design and project nature gets the selection criteria. Manufacture specification codes are crucial for granted consistency of building regulations.
    4.8 Design and Planning bye-laws.
    An urban pattern means in idiomatic terminology, “regular in regulations. ‘. If this pattern is topologically regular object (s), must have regulations to sound its morphological theme in human purposes and hazards restriction whether natural or man-made. Design and planning bye-laws verify goals of urban design sustainability in human protection and safety control. Standard themes in terms of specifications and Codes of practice argued and issued by building regulations councils and institutes must be of respect of urban design contributors among its multi-disciplinary.
    This clause of bye-laws lack a little bit in Sudanese urban industry, but possibly to be refreshed and take led for better urban age of Khartoum town, or greater Khartoum. Urban design and planning forums, possibly to elaborates issues for better in legislation draft subject to approval by Sudanese architects on foundation proposal. See;

    FIG.9 : The Panoramic Views of Paradigmatic Pattern style @ Entire Khartoum.

    5. Legend of Environmental Analysis.
    Interior environment of a building is subject to climatic analysis for convenient living for occupants to perform life ways in different building types. In this legend a précised preview on 3 themes of environmental variables as well climatic factors are discussed in highlight of any urban entity or a building complex in context to urban design and planning exterior on environmental effects simultaneously to these three themes of subsequent interior effect.
    • Interior light urban environment.
    • Interior sound urban environment.
    • Interior thermal urban environment.
    Interior Light Environment.
    This context based on daylight illumination of urban complexes, like shopping centers, hospitals, colleges, laboratories, etc. where this theme of daylight control is of importance. Deeply relative to orientation, opening types, system shading devise, beside construction techniques and building materials, include colors and textures selection of an urban complex in terms of: Roofs Floors .Curtain walls, facades, blinders and curtains patterns. Previously mentioned, in control of daylight factor, (DF) components of; sky component; externally, reflected component; internally reflected component. In relation to reflection factors of roofs, facades externally and eventually through window-types in adequacy of glare elimination to determine standard mode day light lumens for an urban complex interior in design approach requirements.
    Interior Sound Environment.
    Sound level of interior enclosures and semi.-enclosure at convenient decibel level in avoidance of urban nuisances created by routine urban life is the matter of consideration. No doubt functional distribution of urban complexes besides building orientation save a lot of money spent on techniques of construction and selection of expensive building materials, on 2nd term selection of materials and constructional techniques for urban complexes on audio levels requirement is a priority must be subject to acoustic criteria in function and feasibility.
    Interior Thermal Environment.
    Architectural design and environmental research control, almost ends with thermal control in building for comfort ability of occupants. At urban design trends, the matter is serious for all building types, since the urban environment severe subject to micro-climatic hazards of ozone depletion due to excessive heat rise and carbon oxides production out of car machine engines beside solar rates conditions. The matter in its 1st resolution is deemed to plant cover in urban landscape criteria. Materials specification and codes for construction methods in continuous building research is the matter.
    As the three environmental variables of interior, light, sound, and thermal are illustrated on intersection mapping. Intersection area, rose like on, FIG.10 shows the mutual Liabilities of the triple variables.
    Interior Environment mutual intersection coincides category 2 on FIG: 11. For the triple series light in blue. Sound in grey. Thermal in orange for mutual comfort ability for triple variables
    Light, sound, and thermal for interior urban environment of decisive consider in respect of urban design trends of essentials.
    Series:-The blue series stands for light interior environment.-The orange series stand for thermal interior environment.-The grey series stands for sound interior environment.
    Categories:-Category 1; over to comfort ability value for triple series.-Category 2; required comfort ability value for triple series.-Category 3; under to comfort ability value for triple series.
    6. Cultural Challenges:
    In language guide; the idiom, “culture “is defined as mind or manners cultivation through artistic and intellectual activities. Thus arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievements regarded collectively, also is defined as refined understanding of intellectual achievement of a particular time or people of the same identity, or any other human link, or otherwise improvement by mental and physical applications deemed to terminology of, “civilization “ as an eventual expressing of culture. And urbanism is the greatest expression of civilization in urban age concept. This paradigm of culture in urban planning and design is associated with certain urban society in expressing its identity through pattern selection at different levels of urban design and planning; discussed before starting from plot level, block level, community level, town level, and city level. Cultural expression not in itself as a paradigm but in mutual to other paradigms, like environment, socioeconomically and or urban functional organization at a level of urban design and planning. Modernism abstracted all previous cultures then to international style, now is termed “global style “in entire post-modernism .urbanization and urbanism cut short cultural motivation to world style. However monotony of repetition in association with this concept makes some urban planners and designers to rethink in revivalism to express their local identities in composite concept to global style. Since culture is an expression why not we express cultural manifestation in urban design and planning trends in emergence with modernism? Some identities around the world had done this composite concept in their contribution like the Far East architecture of the Chinese and Japanese for instance with emphasis of climate and cultural traditions. E.G. see FIG. 0 left. Also the arabesque style in Middle East of Arab countries in expressing their previous contribution in urban age in revival. African seems strong in expressing their identity contribution in their indigenous villages of mud and straw in meaningful cultural expression in wait to get mutual with modern style in motivation of environ-cultural themes of indigenous vernacular to form and to express modern styles. See FIG. 0 right before leaf

    7. Socioeconomic Challenges:
    Habitat programmers thought well the term socioeconomic to be one word in link with urbanization where the extended family of the pre metros settlement is overtaken by family’s the core of the urban society in contribution to urban input and output in sense of urban economization. life ways get the urban family entertain through urban facilities like shopping ,sports and other leisure of entertainment of kid gardens and family parks .and to build the town input and output have to be dual in concept of socioeconomic in feedback analysis of Chicago school of urban design and Harvard university contribution in urban design trends. Cities founded on industrial revolution and matrix trade influx like rural urban influx, or otherwise the city state is going to lose its basic financial resources. On the other hand municipality role in tax input and service provision output is the matter related to urban state economic policies and strategies towards capital budgetary control of all possible financial resources in restriction of bye-laws in right constitutions of urban forum for better urban design and planning forum. Planning and design in urban field socioeconomically is a compromised theory for both capitalism and socialism theorems in respect. However the overall city of a country whether a socialist or capitalist is called a “capital “. Thus real estate is the perfect answer. See FIG.0 top
    8. Functional Organization Challenges:
    This the mutual output of both urban planning and design trends that all urban complexes are functionally organized upon all themes in comprehensive measurement criteria. The building complex is an adequate, in an adequate plot, part on an adequate block, part of an adequate neighborhood of a well-built community in socioeconomic wale fare, forming a self- sufficient and sustainable urbanism @ anytime anywhere. Read with FIG.9. Before leaf.
    Functional organization in urban planning optimizes rational results in urban design characters. Functional organization means adequate urbanism by itself. The following themes of adequacy express functional organization broadly:
    • Planning patterns paradigmatically in definition of articulation.
    • Environ-cultural expression at planning level associated with themes pre -mentioned in,” environmental challenges. FIG.7”.
    • Priorities deemed to zoning in adequate system organization of urban circulation network.
    • Water supply.
    • Power supply.
    • Refused disposal. Rainwater exclusion.
    • Planning by-laws.
    .At urban design level
     Open space hierarchy pattern.
     Urban landscape pattern.
     Day and artificial lighting system.
    Transfer and communications modes

  2. alatif zakaria says

    *PhD Research Proposal on:
    Environmental Studies Effect Design Challenges in Architecture:
    A-Abstract of Research Proposal:
    Research issue on environmental studies, addresses research problems resoulton in architectural design paradigms related to environmental variables effect. A lot of applied methodologies are being done in this field at research progress.
    Analytical methods are still in research gaps needs better development and readdressing of fundamental theories of environmental studies to be managed in specific by research do- ministration. The continuous research problems in architecture are, seems an obligation of time factor changes, pound to different geographical locations on the globe in respond of, renewable architectural design challenges, traced by environmental variables in general elaborate of research question waiting for research answer resolving research problem gaps.
    Statement research question(s) to fill these gaps, nominates statement research answer(s) from general to specific in a particular focus of an optimum methodologies in research concept, and application method system. Both have to identify the research gap to formulate a research problem statement in hypos is, or case study(s) application states. The research problem statement domain is subject to research analysis to threshold of the research problem resolution in focus of the research objectives for brilliant research results in focus by the researcher.
    The acquired research results compared by the research objectives statement are expected to justify the need for the research thesis on board of request.
    Fig 1 – 2: illustrate the study variables relationship, overleaf.

    Passive Remarks: How to Rephrase in Statement a Variable of the Study Paradigm
    Adjectival passive phrase or a sentence for research question statement acquired by the research methodology: e.g. it was said to start a PhD thesis: then literature is acquired.
    Research problem gap (……….s) statement: e.g. a distant way from start to an end: then a measurement criteria is required to define a method for reaching end point from start point.
    Objectively passive phrase or a sentence for research answer statement acquired by the research results, compared by the research objectives statement: e.g. a purpose(s) for end point reach: task pane and in task pane a: result(s)… End a detective!

    #the Research Proposal Issues:



    B-Research Title: Design in Architecture and Environmental Variables Analysis:
    The environmental variables challenges in architectural design motifs share a considerable ratio, compared with any other disciplinary of architectural design paradigms in rational focus. Design in architecture hence, is mainly environmental predicted in all ages of history and theory of design in architectural record.
    A research question statement in architectural design gaps for optimization in statement answer is related for built environment, cornfield the matter of research management and administration subjectively, to problem formulation.
    In this proposal, the following themes are in focus for the research problem statement.
    • Environmental design studies.
    • Interior design applications.
    • Exterior design applications
    • .Theory and history of architectural contributions applied to environmental variables.

    D-Research problem statement:
    This proposal is intended for optimization of research in architectural design matrix, (a research question), related to environmental variables, (a research problem.) demonstrated by theory, (methodologies) of interior design elements, and application, (methods) for building components.
    Environmental design variables affect both Interior and exterior design elements, (dot, lines, planes, volumes, masses…etc.) mirror to interior and exterior building components, (roofs-floors-walls-openings…) in mapping optimization context?
    Hence the statement answer for the research statement question(s) in research gaps, through conceptual and systematic methodological, and tool method analysis to demonstrate the specific research problems under the thesis title:…………………………………………………………………..
    Thence, the research problem statement is summarized on: the effect of lighting-acoustic-thermal in interior design limits of an architectural space of a certain building type selected. The application gaps associated with the triple; lighting-acoustic-thermal. (LAT), where each of the triple (LAT),; duple of the triple, or all of the triple in research elaboration by method analysis of an interesting PhD thesis objectives towards better administration of interior design affected by the exterior design elements and components FIG.5: THE PARADIGMS OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT: OVER LEAF

    E-Methodologies and methods:
    Methodologies and methods “are different ” as stated by, Mark Davies in architectural design research parameter related to environmental design paradigms resides in scientific research of conceptual generalizations, (methodologies) for any research question elaborated on environmental studies. On the other hand; a research statement answer by resolving problem in specific on do- ministration board of the research context gets research methods essential for research management.
    No doubt, literature reviewing in methodological is a systematic concepts affiliates the researcher for his own assessment portion in scientific knowledge contribution.
    F-Research results and outputs:
    Research results and outputs in environmental studies related to architectural design and constructional methods; no doubt, this enrich of the design process comprehensiveness in capabilities, (projects). Feedback of research on environmental studies subject to paradigms of theory and history of architecture, for definite resolves of the research methods assess mentally to statement problem in focus of building methods process and development along the ages of history of architecture sequentially without cut off.
    G-Conclusions of the Research Proposal:
    However, the research problem statement in broad field of scientific research contextual to main environmental variables affecting interior design of all building types in architecture in terms of the specific, (LAT) Model compromise of the following paradigms:
    • The interior lighting environment.
    • The interior acoustic environment.
    • The interior thermal environment.

    Fig. 3: illustrates a category\series graph method for LAT Model triple variables of: Lighting-Acoustic-Thermal at state reading selection of possibly in endless probabilities in real time-

    Each of the triple series; suggests an independent MSc. Or PhD applied dissertation. Hence the suggested research problem statement for this PhD thesis proposal is expected for mutual broad research results applied for interior design themes. Thence the proposed methodological model of (LAT), deals with the interior design gaps in research question to fill these research gaps in rational compromises towards optimization of the interior design checklists and design application in environmental variables criteria. However the expected research capacity limits is focused in symbolic scientific research in general towards specific broad sampling of experimental selected case studies for each paradigm of LAT as follows:
    • A sample case study on: interior space day light factor control.
    • A sample case study on: interior space acoustic control.
    • A sample case study on: interior space thermal comfort ability control.
    The mutual result; “ the case study “focus of the triple series of the LAT Model is subject to minimal simplified representation of the triple series measured by categories of evaluation scale as follows :
    The following specific readings are relevant to each series of: lighting, acoustic, and thermal
    • Lighting effect and interior design requirements in terms of
    Day- lighting. & artificial, lumen, or lux, etc. respectively for comfortable visual ability for an occupant in task pane in adequately designed interior space
    • Sound Path Effect and Design Application Challenges
    • Acoustic effect and interior de sign requirements in terms of
    Sound level (Decibel), frequency control (Hz), etc. For convenient listening condition in adequately designed interior space
    • Thermal effect and interior design
    BTU, etc. responding thermal comfort ability in adequately designed interior space

    • Analytical Research Description of: The three above mentioned paradigms of great scientific research in respond, associated with complicated gaps of analysis to cope a mutual result in simplicity of adequate performance in an interior space by occupants in doing their tasks scaled in comfort ability and convenience for instant modes. FIG. 3


    • Top: a design proposal based on natural lighting and shading- Ministry of Environment.
    • Middle: a design proposal based on natural lighting and acoustic control of interior space of a combined court theatre- Co mesa H.Q…Building.
    • Bottom: a design proposal based on natural lighting and shading for thermal comfort- customs H.Q. Building. Khartoum Airport.



    Time scale 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 اسبوع
    duration activities
    4 Literature reviews 1
    4 Data collection 2
    12 Research analysis 3
    6 Lab work 4
    4 Case study 5
    4 Synthesis and conclusion 6
    6 Data filter 7
    8 Thesis draft 8



     Shogir.N M.I.O. HISTORY OF SUDAN(1960)
     Tounsi, M.I.O VOYAGE TO DAR FUR (1889).

  3. alatif zakaria says


  4. Gracie Granata says


    I have a question, i see a lot of products in this store that you also sell in your store.
    But there products are 20% cheaper, well my question is what is the difference between your store and theirs,

    is it the quality or something else, I hope you can answer my question.


    “Sent from my iPhone”

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